Burliness is the Primary Attribute of the Warrior and pertains to getting into trouble, hitting ones head on other people, and getting hit by large objects/limbs/pseudopods. It affects hitpoints, melee power, and block chance.
Nimbleness is the Primary Attribute of the Rogue and is the quality of swiftness, grace, and not getting hit by things. It affects dodge chance, sneakiness, enemy dodge reduction, and counter-attack chance. Nimbleness is pretty great.
Melee Power affects how hard you hit with your weapons (or feet, if you don't have any). It's also how hard you throw stuff, but not how hard you shoot your crossbow bolts because that wouldn't make sense.
This is a rating of how good you are at tinkering.
Some of the items have this stat (One Sparkling Glove). There is no real description of this stat in game since it's a hidden stat. This stat has a chance based on your total magic reflection, to reflect any attack against you back to your attacker, leaving you completely unharmed.
Every point you spend in a skill, including the first 7 points used to pick your skill paths, affect secondary attributes as well as enhancing bonuses on equipment in their respective areas at higher levels.
The one on the left is a brand new character fully specialized in rogue skills; while the other one is a multi-classed warrior and wizard. Below is the chart of bonus attribute points you get for each class-skill you choose.
Asphyxiative damage is very hard to spell, and is inflicted upon your opponent when your attack suddenly causes them to stop breathing. This is usually accomplished by removing air from the room, and replacing it with gas, cabbage scents, or noxious cologne.
Existential damage: does it exist or not? We don't know, but your weapon may inflict it on somebody... if they exist. It bypasses your opponent's armour, if it exists. This tooltip is now going to go off and question its existence, read Heidegger, and weep piteously into a bottle of Dr. Sanin's New-Age Pilsner.
Conflagratory resistance is very useful if you're a witch, or are likely to be working near witches or other flammable objects. Caution: asbestos armour has been determined by the Dwarven Mountainhomes to cause an increase in lung cancer, beard rot, and Strange Moods.
Voltaic resistance is best achieved by strapping frogs to your body. Their tough, thick conductive hides will help protect you from any electrical encounters. Failing that, we recommend magic rings or something.
Aethereal resistance protects you from attacks fuelled by the power of the stars, the universe, and the influences of the Celestial Bodies upon your more earthly body. Caution: do not stare directly into the Celestial Aegis.